During the Ibero-American Summit in Santiago, Chile, Uruguayan President Tabaré Vázquez granted authorization for the controversial pulp mill in Fray Bentos to begin operations. Earlier, new talks between Uruguay and Argentina had come to an end without producing any results. Two years ago, Argentine environmental activists began staging protests against the mill, located on the Uruguay River, which forms part of the border between the two countries. They were supported by Néstor Kirchner, the president of Argentina at the time. Shortly before the Summit, his wife Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, who will take over as president on 10 December, had called on the mill’s opponents to exercise moderation. The mill was to begin operations on the following day at 6:00 a.m. local time.